The East Coast of Canada is typically divided in to three areas: the Nova Scotian margin into the south, the Newfoundland margin upforit at the heart and eastern, and also the Labrador margin into the north (Figure 1). These margins formed in the past 200 million years due to the fact supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart, first as North America separated from Africa after which because it separated from European countries and Greenland (Figure 2). These episodes of rifting thinned and heated the crust that is continental lithosphere, which in turn subsided to make a complex pair of marginal basins. Huge amounts of sediment have since accumulated during these basins and created sources and traps for hydrocarbon deposits. Exploration task to get and exploit these resources, mainly from seismic pages and boreholes of history three decades, has led to the production that is present of off Newfoundland and gasoline off Nova Scotia. Exploration tasks of both commercial and medical activities have additionally yielded a wealth of fundamental information that includes significantly enhanced our comprehension of the basic procedures of lithospheric expansion and rifting that is continental have actually created these margins and their hydrocarbon resources.
Figure 1. Map of Eastern Canada with places of Nova Scotian, Newfoundland and Labrador margin that is continental. Dashed lines give locations of Appalachian front side (AF) and Grenville Front (GF), which divide the continental areas into three major geological provinces.
It will be the function of this paper that is brief summarize several of those findings.
I shall make use of recently available maps of total sediment thicknesses (Oakey and Stark, 1995) and gravity that is marine from satellite altimetry (Sandwell and Smith, 1997) to determine the different basins, plus some types of local seismic pages to illustrate structures of both sediment and crust. The complex set of sedimentary basins and their underlying basement structures that form these continental margins extend over a very wide transitional region as clearly indicated by the maps and profiles. A sizable an element of the sediment that is thick occur within the much deeper water slope and increase basins in this change area. Brand New overseas research activity happens to be focussing on these deep water basins. If significant accumulations of fuel and oil are observed, it may basically move the near future focus associated with the oil that is canadian fuel industry from west to east. My hope is the fact that outcomes because of these brand brand new endeavors, both commercial and medical, might also continue steadily to play a crucial part in enhancing our fundamental comprehension of exactly exactly how these transitional regions type.
Plate tectonic reconstructions regarding the North Atlantic area are constrained mainly by identifications of marine magnetic anomalies and major fracture areas that formed through the development of ocean crust (Figure 2; Coffin et al., 1992). Such reconstructions could be used to figure out the many years and pre-drift roles of margin conjugates (for example. Continental parts which were as soon as next to one another before subsequent creation of intervening ocean crust). This is really important for determining the pattern that is complete of by juxtaposition of crustal parts across both margin pairs. Needless to say, given that age and complexity of subsequent dish motions increases therefore will the doubt associated with the reconstructed jobs.
Figure 2. Plate reconstructions that are tectonic the opening for the North Atlantic Ocean at 180 Ma, 130 Ma, 80 Ma, and 50 Ma. Dashed lines give locations of chosen sea-floor anomalies that are spreading. NFZ=Newfoundland Fracture Zone; AFZ=Azores Fracture Zone; GFZ=Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone; BTJ=Biscay Triple Junction; DS=Davis Strait (from Coffin et that is al).
The separation of North American and Eurasia formed the North Atlantic margins in five stages, beginning in the south and progressing to the north as defined by the reconstructions
- North America separated from Africa to make the margin that is scotian before chron M29 (160 Ma).
- North America separated from Iberia to make the Southern Newfoundland margin sometime before chron M3 (125 Ma).
- The united states separated from European countries to create the Newfoundland that is northern margin after chron M0 (120 Ma).
- North America separated from Greenland to create the Labrador margin sometime before chron 31 (70 Ma).
- A stage that is final of divided Greenland from European countries starting briefly before chron 24 (55 Ma).